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Documentation

PLEASE NOTE: This document applies to v0.13 version and not to the latest release v1.2

Documentation for other releases can be found by using the version selector in the top right of any doc page.

Managed Resources

Overview

Managed resources are the Crossplane representation of the cloud provider resources and they are considered primitive low level custom resources that can be used directly to provision external cloud resources for an application or as part of an infrastructure composition.

For example, RDSInstance in AWS Provider corresponds to an actual RDS Instance in AWS. There is a one-to-one relationship and the changes on managed resources are reflected directly on the corresponding resource in the provider.

You can browse API Reference to discover all available managed resources.

Syntax

Crossplane API conventions extend the Kubernetes API conventions for the schema of Crossplane managed resources. Following is an example of RDSInstance:

apiVersion: database.aws.crossplane.io/v1beta1
kind: RDSInstance
metadata:
  name: foodb
spec:
  forProvider:
    dbInstanceClass: db.t2.small
    masterUsername: root
    allocatedStorage: 20
    engine: mysql
  writeConnectionSecretToRef:
      name: mysql-secret
      namespace: crossplane-system
  providerConfigRef:
    name: default
  reclaimPolicy: Delete

In Kubernetes, spec top field represents the desired state of the user. Crossplane adheres to that and has its own conventions about how the fields under spec should look like.

Versioning

Crossplane closely follows the Kubernetes API versioning conventions for the CRDs that it deploys. In short, for vXbeta and vX versions, you can expect that either automatic migration or instructions for manual migration will be provided when a new version of that CRD schema is released.

Grouping

In general, managed resources are high fidelity resources meaning they will provide parameters and behaviors that are provided by the external resource API. This applies to grouping of resources, too. For example, Queue appears under sqs API group in AWS,so, its APIVersion and Kind look like the following:

apiVersion: sqs.aws.crossplane.io/v1beta1
kind: Queue

Behavior

As a general rule, managed resource controllers try not to make any decision that is not specified by the user in the desired state since managed resources are the lowest level primitives that operate directly on the cloud provider APIs.

Continuous Reconciliation

Crossplane providers continuously reconcile the managed resource to achieve the desired state. The parameters under spec are considered the one and only source of truth for the external resource. This means that if someone changed a configuration in the UI of the provider, like AWS Console, Crossplane will change it back to what’s given under spec.

Immutable Properties

There are configuration parameters in external resources that cloud providers do not allow to be changed. If the corresponding field in the managed resource is changed by the user, Crossplane submits the new desired state to the provider and returns the error, if any. For example, in AWS, you cannot change the region of an RDSInstance.

Some infrastructure tools such as Terraform delete and recreate the resource to accommodate those changes but Crossplane does not take that route. Unless the managed resource is deleted and its reclaimPolicy is Delete, its controller never deletes the external resource in the provider.

Immutable fields are marked as immutable in Crossplane codebase but Kubernetes does not yet have immutable field notation in CRDs.

External Name

By default the name of the managed resource is used as the name of the external cloud resource that will show up in your cloud console. To specify a different external name, Crossplane has a special annotation to represent the name of the external resource. For example, I would like to have a CloudSQLInstance with an external name that is different than its managed resource name:

apiVersion: database.gcp.crossplane.io/v1beta1
kind: CloudSQLInstance
metadata:
  name: foodb
  annotations:
    crossplane.io/external-name: my-special-db
spec:
  ...

When you create this managed resource, you will see that the name of CloudSQLInstance in GCP console will be my-special-db.

If the annotation is not given, Crossplane will fill it with the name of the managed resource by default. In cases where provider doesn’t allow you to name the resource, like AWS VPC, the controller creates the resource and sets external annotation to be the name that the cloud provider chose. So, you would see something like vpc-28dsnh3 as the value of crossplane.io/external-name annotation of your AWS VPC resource even if you added your own custom external name during creation.

Late Initialization

For some of the optional fields, users rely on the default that the cloud provider chooses for them. Since Crossplane treats the managed resource as the source of the truth, values of those fields need to exist in spec of the managed resource. So, in each reconciliation, Crossplane will fill the value of a field that is left empty by the user but is assigned a value by the provider. For example, there could be two fields like region and availabilityZone and you might want to give only region and leave the availability zone to be chosen by the cloud provider. In that case, if the provider assigns an availability zone, Crossplane gets that value and fills availabilityZone. Note that if the field is already filled, the controller won’t override its value.

Deletion

When a deletion request is made for a managed resource, its controller starts the deletion process immediately. However, the managed resource is kept in the Kubernetes API (via a finalizer) until the controller confirms the external resource in the cloud is gone. So you can be sure that if the managed resource is deleted, then the external cloud resource is also deleted. Any errors that happen during deletion will be added to the status of the managed resource, so you can troubleshoot any issues.

Dependencies

In many cases, an external resource refers to another one for a specific configuration. For example, you could want your Azure Kubernetes cluster in a specific Virtual Network. External resources have specific fields for these relations, however, they usually require the information to be supplied in different formats. In Azure MySQL, you might be required to enter only the name of the Virtual Network while in Azure Kubernetes, it could be required to enter a string in a specific format that includes other information such as resource group name.

In Crossplane, users have 3 fields to refer to another resource. Here is an example from Azure MySQL managed resource referring to a Azure Resource Group:

spec:
  forProvider:
    resourceGroupName: foo-res-group
    resourceGroupNameRef:
      name: resourcegroup
    resourceGroupNameSelector:
      matchLabels:
        app: prod

In this example, the user provided only a set of labels to select a ResourceGroup managed resource that already exists in the cluster via resourceGroupNameSelector. Then after a specific ResourceGroup is selected, resourceGroupNameRef is filled with the name of that ResourceGroup managed resource. Then in the last step, Crossplane fills the actual resourceGroupName field with whatever format Azure accepts it. Once a dependency is resolved, the controller never changes it.

Users are able to specify any of these three fields:

It’s important to note that in case a reference exists, the managed resource does not create the external resource until the referenced object is ready. In this example, creation call of Azure MySQL Server will not be made until referenced ResourceGroup has its status.condition named Ready to be true.

Importing Existing Resources

If you have some resources that are already provisioned in the cloud provider, you can import them as managed resources and let Crossplane manage them. What you need to do is to enter the name of the external resource as well as the required fields on the managed resource. For example, let’s say I have a GCP Network provisioned from GCP console and I would like to migrate it to Crossplane. Here is the YAML that I need to create:

apiVersion: compute.gcp.crossplane.io/v1beta1
kind: Network
metadata:
  name: foo-network
  annotations:
    crossplane.io/external-name: existing-network
spec:
  providerConfigRef:
    name: default

Crossplane will check whether a GCP Network called existing-network exists, and if it does, then the optional fields under forProvider will be filled with the values that are fetched from the provider.

Note that if a resource has required fields, you must fill those fields or the creation of the managed resource will be rejected. So, in those cases, you will need to enter the name of the resource as well as the required fields as indicated in the API Reference documentation.

Backup and Restore

Crossplane adheres to Kubernetes conventions as much as possible and one of the advantages we gain is backup & restore ability with tools that work with native Kubernetes types, like Velero.

If you’d like to backup and restore manually, you can simply export them and save YAMLs in your file system. When you reload them, as we’ve discovered in import section, their crosssplane.io/external-name annotation and required fields are there and those are enough to import a resource. The tool you’re using needs to store annotations and spec fields, which most tools do including Velero.